Electrostatic Polysulfides Confinement to Inhibit Redox Shuttle Process in the Lithium Sulfur Batteries
Cationic polymer can capture polysulfide ions and inhibit polysulfide shuttle effect in lithium sulfur (Li-S) rechargeable batteries, enhancing the Li-S battery cycling performance. The cationic poly[bis(2-chloroethyl) ether-alt-1,3-bis[3-(dimethylamino) propyl]urea] quaternized (PQ) with a high density quaternary ammonium cations can trap the lithium polysulfide through the electrostatic attraction between positively charged quaternary ammonium (R4N+) and negatively charged polysulfide (Sx2-). PQ binder based sulfur electrodes deliver much higher capacity and provide better stability than traditional polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) binder based electrodes in Li-S cells. A high sulfur loading of 7.5 mg/cm2 is achieved, which delivers a high initial areal capacity of 9.0 mAh/cm2 and stable cycling capacity at around 7.0 mAh/cm2 in the following cycles.