Spatiotemporal mapping of microscopic strains and defects to reveal Li-dendrite-induced failure in all-solid-state batteries
Solid-state electrolytes (SSEs) are key to the success and reliability of all-solid-state lithium batteries, potentially enabling improvements in terms of safety and energy density over state-of-the-art lithium-ion batteries. However, there are several critical challenges to their implementation, including the interfacial instability stemming from the dynamic interaction of as-formed dendritic lithium during cycling. For this work, we emphasize the importance of studying the spatial distribution and temporal evolution of strains and defects in crystalline solid-state electrolytes at the micro-scale, and how this affects dendrite growth. A proof-of-principle study is demonstrated using the synchrotron radiation based micro Laue X-ray diffraction method, and a custom-developed in-situ cycling device. Defects and residual strains are mapped, and the evolution of intragranular misorientation is observed. The feasibility of using this technique is discussed, and recommendations for micro-strain engineering to address the Li/SSEs interfacial issues are given. Also, work directions are pointed out with the consideration of combining multi-techniques for “poly-therapy”.