TiO2 Nanomaterials as Anode Materials for Lithium-Ion Rechargeable Batteries
With the increased focus on sustainable energy, Li-ion rechargeable batteries are playing more important roles in energy storage and utilization. Owing to their high safety, low cost, and moderate capacity, titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanomaterials have been considered as promising alternative anode materials for Li-ion rechargeable batteries. Here, we present a concise overview of past research efforts on TiO2 nanomaterials as anode materials for Li-ion rechargeable batteries. We focus on research examples that illustrate the importance of the nanometer-scale, shape, dimensionality, and morphology of the TiO2 nanomaterials to their electrochemical properties for Li-ion storage. Representative examples are given for nanoparticles, nanowires, nanotubes, nanosheets, and three-dimensional materials, as well as amorphous structures. Approaches to improve the performance of TiO2 nanomaterials such as carbon coating, bulk doping, self-structural modification, and compositing are surveyed briefly. Progress in the use of TiO2 nanomaterials in full-cell configurations is also reviewed. Finally, the challenges for the practical applications of TiO2 nanomaterials in Li-ion rechargeable batteries are discussed briefly.