Unlocking the passivation nature of the cathode–air interfacial reactions in lithium ion batteries
It is classically well perceived that cathode–air interfacial reactions, often instantaneous and thermodynamic non-equilibrium, will lead to the formation of interfacial layers, which subsequently, often vitally, control the behaviour and performance of batteries. However, understanding of the nature of cathode–air interfacial reactions remain elusive. Here, using atomic-resolution, time-resolved in-situ environmental transmission electron microscopy and atomistic simulation, we reveal that the cathode–water interfacial reactions can lead to the surface passivation, where the resultant conformal LiOH layers present a critical thickness beyond which the otherwise sustained interfacial reactions are arrested. We rationalize that the passivation behavior is dictated by the Li+-water interaction driven Li-ion de-intercalation, rather than a direct cathode–gas chemical reaction. Further, we show that a thin disordered rocksalt layer formed on the cathode surface can effectively mitigate the surface degradation by suppressing chemical delithiation. The established passivation paradigm opens new venues for the development of novel high-energy and high-stability cathodes.