Defect-Accommodating Intermediates Yield Selective Low-Temperature Synthesis of YMnO 3Polymorphs

Publication Type

Journal Article

Date Published

08/2020

Abstract

In the synthesis of complex oxides, solid-state metathesis provides low-temperature reactions where product selectivity can be achieved through simple changes in precursor composition. The influence of precursor structure, however, is less understood in solid-state synthesis. Here we present the ternary metathesis reaction (LiMnO2 + YOCl → YMnO3 + LiCl) to target two yttrium manganese oxide products, hexagonal and orthorhombic YMnO3, when starting from three different LiMnO2 precursors. Using temperature-dependent synchrotron X-ray and neutron diffraction, we identify the relevant intermediates and temperature regimes of reactions along the pathway to YMnO3. Manganese-containing intermediates undergo a charge disproportionation into a reduced Mn(II,III) tetragonal spinel and oxidized Mn(III,IV) cubic spinel, which lead to hexagonal and orthorhombic YMnO3, respectively. Density functional theory calculations confirm that the presence of Mn(IV) caused by a small concentration of cation vacancies (∼2.2%) in YMnO3 stabilizes the orthorhombic polymorph over the hexagonal. Reactions over the course of 2 weeks yield o-YMnO3 as the majority product at temperatures below 600 °C, which supports an equilibration of cation defects over time. Controlling the composition and structure of these defect-accommodating intermediates provides new strategies for selective synthesis of complex oxides at low temperatures.

Journal

Inorganic Chemistry

Volume

59

Year of Publication

2020

Short Title

Inorg. Chem.

Refereed Designation

Refereed

Pagination

13639 - 13650

Issue

18

ISSN

0020-1669